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Laminar Flow Hood - Build a HEPA filter flowhood

( updated: October 30, 2014, at 09:23 AM )
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Table of contents

Why you need one

A laminar flow hood is a piece of equipment which makes sterile working procedures in mushroom cultivation easier and reliable.

A flow hood consists of a coarse pre-filter, a blower and a very fine filter (the so called HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air) filter which filters particles from the air to a high degree.

This makes the air coming out of the HEPA filter nearly sterile which allows doing transfers in this stream of sterile air without worrying about contaminants entering from the air and contaminating the cultures.

Getting started

You should begin the construction by selecting a HEPA filter and a blower.

The HEPA filter size depends on how big you want to have your working space. The smallest filter size you can reasonably use (for home scale cultivation) is 1ft x 1ft, better though 1ft x 2ft or 2ft x 2ft if you are going to inoculate filter bags.

Sources for HEPA filters

Ebay offers

price:$128.030-007-4-19-06-su-52-00-e0988 flanders hepa air filter1h 25m
price:$169.98New Overstock Flanders Nuclear Grade Hepa Filter 0-007-W-43-05-NU-51-23-CC-FU523h 37m
price:$149.97Envirco Hepa Filter Ceiling Grid Module/Fan Model W23S 35"x23.5" 60hz 115V 4.5A1 d 4h
price:$150.0024" x 24" High Capacity HEPA Filter - Air Scrubber2 d 2h
price:$350.00Flanders 4119777-001 HEPA Filter3 d 43m
price:$424.01Nuclear GradeAstrocel 24 x 24 x11.5 High Efficacy Particulate Air HEPA Filter4 d 23h
price:$150.0024" x 24" x 11 7/8" High Capacity HEPA Filter5 d 3h
price:$206.78Microfiber HEPA Air Filter, Nominal 24"H x 24"W x 11-1/2"D, 1100 cfm,1" WC5 d 14h
price:$125.00HEPA-PLEAT II MODEL STD30-48-03-EHUC30, RATED FPM 100 @ .53 W.G. DOP PEN 0107 d 5h
price:$575.00Flanders PF-FPM493-2448-STD-277VSF Hepa Filter Housing 720 CFM .52" Resistance8 d 18h
price:$803.11AAF Cleanroom Hepa Air Filter MEGAcel new pair12 d 23h
price:$70.00ASTROCEL 1 HEPA Filter 12" x 12" x 5-7/8" 560-743-002 550205005 NEW13 d 20h
price:$376.45HEPA Filter, For MFR No. OA600V and MF214 d 4h
price:$262.89Hepa Filter, 24 In. W, 6 In. D, 12 In. H F-984-315 d 22h
price:$362.37Hepa Carbon Filter, 24 In. W, 12 In. H F-984-4A15 d 22h
price:$149.99Flanders TH52HEPA TH52E2986 007SU-F12A000000 Filter Module 23.625x47.625x5.53117 d 3h
price:$149.99Envirco Corporation 69514006 Performance Certified Hepa Filter 23"x47"x9.13"17 d 3h
price:$129.99AAF MEGAcel 3005428-6 Cleanroom Hepa Filter w/Asyst Fan-Filter Assy Enclosure17 d 3h
price:$249.99Koch Air Filtration BioMax Hepa Filter 24 X 24 X 11 1/218 d 21h
price:$210.00Flanders Pureform 0-007-F-02-03 HEPA Filter 1000CFM 24" x 24" x 11.75"Thick19 d 2h
price:$402.12Semitool High Temp HEPA Filter 04MBU003 36" X 24" New19 d 4h
price:$149.99Flanders HVAC Hepa Filter 0-007-c-07-00-iu-12-00-16a16af M358620 d 21h
price:$499.99Envirco Ceiling Grid Module HEPA Fan Filter Module 90 FPM Cleanroom Fan Lab21 d 5h
price:$39.00Flanders HEPA Filter 21.75" x 20.0"x 2" mod 0-00J-2-19-06-IU-52-00-E1286 NIB21 d 6h
price:$600.00Clean Air Products CAP112-424 HEPA Filter & Blower 24" x 48" x 14" 708CFM .3M23 d 2h
price:$360.99Envirco 840590 MAC-10 HEPA Air Filter 2x4 w/ Fasco Type U26B1 115VAC Motor23 d 2h
price:$195.0024 X 24 X 11 1/2 Hepa Filter 2A2424XCED21126 d 1h
price:$150.00ENVIRCO CERTIFIED HEPA FILTER - P/N 62919 - 23 3/4" X 23 3/4" X 5 7/8" -NEW26 d 3h
price:$166.01Flanders Laminar flow grade ulpa filters type d hepa filter TH52-E2986 48x24"26 d 7h

Worldwide sources
(Austria, Belgium, Bosnia & Hercegovina, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain & Eire, Greece, Hungary, India, Italy, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Mexico, Middle-East, Netherlands, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Taiwan, Turkey, United Arab Emirates (UAE), USA)
(Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Columbia, Costa Rica, Denmark, Egypt, France, Germany, Great Britian, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Republic of Korea, Russia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Thailand, Turkey, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Ukraine, USA)
(Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brasil, Canada, China, Danmark, Deutschland, EspaƱa, France, Ireland, Italia, Malaysia, Netherlands, New Zealand, Polska, Schweiz, Singapore, Suomi, Sverige, United Kingdom, USA)

Country specific sources

Australia | Austria | Bulgaria | Canada | Czech republic | Denmark | France | Germany | India | Israel | Italy | Netherlands | Norway | Russia | Slovenia | Sweden | Switzerland | United Kingdom | USA | Turkey | USA | Yugoslavia





Czech republic













Switzerland (details) (details)


United Kingdom (UK)


USA Filter search web site


Match a blower to the filter

Once you decided on the size of the HEPA filter, you have to match a suitable blower to this particular filter. This is a very important step, so make sure to study the directions thoroughly.

Every filter has a "resistance" when air blows through it at a certain speed, this resistance is called the "static pressure".

Press your hand against your mouth. Now try to blow through it. Dependant on how firm you press it against your mouth, you will have some difficulties blowing air out and you will feel some resistance, this is the static pressure.

Every filter has a different static pressure at the working point. The working point is where the amount of the air flowing through the filter is sufficient to meet the requirement of the laminar flow.

The static pressure is expressed in inch of water column in the English units, a typical value would be 1", the SI unit for pressure is Pa(Pascal).

1" water column is around 250 Pa. Each filter has a data sheet (consult the manufacturer if this is not the case with your filter) where the static pressure at the working point is entered. Before the air enters the blower it is usually pre-filtered by a furnace filter around 1"(2.5cm) thick placed in front of the blower to protect it and the HEPA filter from big particles like dust and hairs. It can be assumed that the static pressure for this prefilter at the working point is around 0.2"(50 Pa)

According to Stamets (Paul Stamets and J.S.Chilton: The Mushroom Cultivator p. 347 ff) the air speed of the air flowing from the filter surface should be (at least) 100 feet per minute(fpm).(around 30 meter per minute or 0.5 meter per second). Determining the correct blower for a filter consists of several steps:

1. Find out the area of your filter by multiplying the width and the hight in feet (for instance the smallest reasonably usable filter would be 2ft x 1ft)

2ft x 1ft = 2 ft2

2. Multiply the required air speed(the one Stamets specifies, 100 ft/min) with the area of your filter

100 ft/min x 2 ft2 = 200 ft3/min

So 200 ft3/min(= cfm = "cubic feet per minute") is the amount of air your blower must deliver at the sum of the STATIC PRESSURE of the HEPA filter + prefilter.

NOTE: 1 cfm= 1.7m3/h

So if you use the above filter with 1"(250Pa) static pressure and a furnace prefilter with a static pressure of 0.2"(50Pa) your blower must deliver 200 cfm(340m3/h) of air at a static pressure of 1.2"(300Pa).

Finding the correct blower

Each blower has a data sheet (consult the manufacturer if this is not the case with your blower) where the correlation between the volumetric flow and the static pressure is represented by a graph or table.

Here is such a set of curves for 4 blowers(numbered 1-4).
NOTE: Each model of a blower has his own characteristic curve. This chart shows the curves for 4 different particular models of axial duct blowers.
What you can clearly see is that the bigger the static pressure the less air the blower delivers, up to the maximum static pressure where the air output is zero.

Sometimes these data are presented in form of a table.

By now you know how much your blower must deliver and at which static pressure. In our example it was 340m3/h at 300Pa.
So what we do now is to go in this chart and find the value of 300Pa(=1.2") at the vertical axis. Then you move to the right until you reach 340m3/h.(=200cfm)
Now, ideally there should be a curve of a blower going exactly trough this point, but this is not always the case.
So we have to choose a blower that best approximates our requirements.
In most cases we should choose a stronger blower, if it's not too strong.
How strong is too strong? I'd say the blower shouldn't deliver more that 20% more air than we calculated, so in our case the strongest acceptable blower would be around 400m3/h.
In this example we have a blower that delivers 300m3/h(according to our calculation it should deliver 340m3/h though). This is a difference of mere 10%. The next stronger blower in this chart delivers 530m3/h at 300Pa, which is way too much.

In this case we go for the smaller(and cheaper) blower(Nr.4) instead of the much bigger one(Nr.1, which delivers 530m3/h at 300Pa), despite the fact that it's generally recommended to take a stronger one.

NOTE: This chart is only an example for a set of 4 particular blowers. The curves of the blowers available to you may look a bit different, but similar.
Usually, if you search long enough, you will be able to find a blower that exactly matches your HEPA.

The design in this pictorial uses an in-line centrifugal fan, another good option (actually the one most commonly used for flow hoods) is a squirrel cage blower (also called shaded pole blower).

You can get many blowers at, often at much cheaper prices than if you bought them directly.

Ebay offers

It is important to contact the seller in advance and inquire about the exact characteristics of the blower beforehand, so you don't end up with a too weak blower.

When in doubt, head for the more powerful blower, you can still regulate it down if necessary with a variable speed controller/regulator:

Ebay offers

Construction of the hood

After you bought the HEPA filter and a matching blower , you have to get some materials for the construction of the box that will accommodate the above 2 components.
Basically you want to build a box, the front wall of the box will consist of the HEPA filter, and another wall will have the inlet of the blower with the pre-filter mounted. I had the material for the walls already cut to fit the size of the filter and the blower.
I begin by gluing and screwing the filter to the bottom wall.

Then I add the side walls....

....and the back wall.

The blower will be mounted so the inlet is at the top.

A hole is cut in the wall at the top to accommodate the blower inlet.

The blower rests on a bar mounted in the box. The white dots on the bar is some(already dried) silicone mass to provide some damping and lessens vibrations. All the joints are filled with silicone mass so the box is airtight.

The top with the blower is screwed on the box. The space around the opening and all other cracks in the box are tightened with silicone mass.

A pre filter is mounted atop of the blower. I use a furnace filter, you can also use other filers, like car air filters, just make sure they are large enough and that they don't have too much air resistance, otherwise you would need a larger blower.

Detail of the pre-filter.

A net is tackered to the frame of the HEPA filter to prevent touching and harming the delicate filter.

The finished flow hood.

Some pictures of a similar design, the only difference is that the blower is mounted around 10 cm deeper, so the pre filer is in the same level as the rest of the box. Makes it more visually appealing and more compact this way.

Yet more pictures of the design on the right can be found in the gallery

A link to a very good tutorial on flowhood construction applying a different design:
Laminar flow hood construction

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Page last modified on October 30, 2014, at 09:23 AM