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I made a video of the substrate preparation and inoculation:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3iFi3YrIo7o

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(:youtube 3iFi3YrIo7o:)

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I made a video of the substrate preparation and inoculation:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3iFi3YrIo7o

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E' di vitale importanza che dopo il flush vengano colti tutti i funghi, maturi ed abortiti. Si riesce piu' facilmente se si colgono ruotandoli e tirandoli leggermente via dalla tortina con le mani pulite.

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E' di vitale importanza che dopo il flush vengano colti tutti i funghi, maturi ed abortiti. Si riesce piu' facilmente se si colgono ruotandoli e tirandoli leggermente via dalla tortina con le mani pulite. Optionally you can dunk the cakes after each flush, this can increase the flush size significantly.

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e molti altri.

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e molti altri.

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If you never have used a pressure cooker before check out this document about the correct pressure cooker use.

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If you never have used a pressure cooker before check out this document about the correct pressure cooker use.

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PF-Tek Senza Fatica

Per la coltivazione dei funghi su granaglie
(Psilocybe cubensis)
( aggiornamento: April 07, 2008, at 11:14 AM )
Commenti e suggerimenti sono i benvenuti sempre

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PF-Tek Senza Fatica
Per la coltivazione dei funghi su granaglie
(Psilocybe cubensis)
( aggiornamento: April 07, 2008, at 11:14 AM )
Commenti e suggerimenti sono i benvenuti sempre

(:cell:)

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La procedura qui presentata usa i barattoli da ½ pinta (236ml) o bicchieri da acqua ed un substrato fatto di vermiculite, farina di riso ed acqua. Il substrato viene miscelato, sterilizzato ed inoculato con spore di funghi. Dopo che il substrato e' stato colonizzato completamente dal micelio la fruttificazione avviene in un contenitore di plastica.

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La procedura qui presentata usa i barattoli da ~240ml o bicchieri da acqua ed un substrato fatto di vermiculite, farina di riso ed acqua. Il substrato viene miscelato, sterilizzato ed inoculato con spore di funghi. Dopo che il substrato e' stato colonizzato completamente dal micelio la fruttificazione avviene in un contenitore di plastica.

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Commenti e suggerimenti sono i benvenuti sempre

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Commenti e suggerimenti sono i benvenuti sempre

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Vermiculite

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Vermiculite

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Fornitori online di vermiculite e perlite

Farina di riso integrale (BRF)

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Fornitori online di vermiculite e perlite

Farina di riso integrale (BRF)

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Acqua

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Acqua

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Bicchieri

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Bicchieri

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Sterilization

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Sterilizatione

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Inoculation

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Inoculatione

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Incubation

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Incubatione

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Fruiting

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Fruttificazione

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The inoculated jars develop fastest if they are stored at a temperature of 27°C (80°F) (According to Stamets the best incubation temperature for P. cubensis would be 86°F, but since the jars themselves are a few degrees warmer than the surroundings (mycelium emits heat when growing) 80°F is a good and safe incubator temperature)

You can build an effective incubator by using two plastic boxes of the same size and an aquarium heater.
There are several types of aquarium heaters. When you´re buying a heater, make sure that it is of the "fully submersible" type.
Attach the heater to the bottom of the first box and pour in as much 27°C warm water that the heater is completely submerged.
Adjust the heaters thermostat so that the heater just shuts itself off at 27°C .
Put some spacers on the bottom of the box, they carry the second box and prevent it from touching the heater. In the above picture 4 jars are used. You could also use bricks, stones or something similar.

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I bicchieri devono essere tenuti ad una temperatura compresa tra i 21 ed i 27°, meglio se verso i 27° ma assolutamente non oltre. Se non puoi mantenere una temperatura simile puoi costruire un'incubatore.

I bicchieri inoculati si colonizzano piu' velocemente se mantenuti a 27°C.
(Stamets dice che la migliore temperatura per incubare gli P. cubensis sia di 30°C, ma dal momento che il micelio crescendo produce calore 27° e' una buona temperatura)

Si puo' costruire un buon incubatore usando due scatole di plastica della stessa misura ed uno scalda acquari.
Ci sono molti tipi di riscaldatori per cui quando lo andate a comprare prendetene uno completamente sommergibile.
Fissate il riscaldatore sul fondo della prima scatola e versate dentro tanta acqua a 27°C quanta ne serve per ricoprirlo completamente.
Regolate il termostato in modo che si spenga da solo a 27°C
Mettete sul fondo della prima scatola qualche cosa che impedisca alla seconda di toccare il riscaldatore (che di norma diventa mpolto caldo). Nell'immagine a fianco sono stati usati 4 bicchieri. Potete anche usare mattono o pietre o oggetti simili.

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Put the second box in the one containing water.
After a few hours measure the temperature again and adjust the heater if necessary so the water temperature is 27°C.

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Mettete la seconda scatola all'interno di quella che contiene l'acqua.
Dopo poche ore misurate la temperatura e se necessario regolate il riscaldatore perche' l'acqua sia a 27°C.

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When the box is empty, it will float on the water.
The water level in the lower box should reach app. 2/3 the height of the box, supposing the upper box is in place loaded with jars and resting on the spacers.

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Quando la seconda scatola e' vuota galleggia nell'acqua.
Il livello dell'acqua contenuta nella prima scatola deve arrivare, quando la seconda e' carica e poggia sugli spessori, circa ai 2/3 dell'altezza.

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Now you can put the inoculated jars into the box.

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Ora potete piazzare i bicchieri inoculati nell'incubatore

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Cover the jars with a blanket to keep the heat escaping and to keep the jars dark. Note: the water level drops in some weeks by evaporation. Therefore you have to fill some fresh water in from time to time to keep the water level high enough. Never let evaporate so much water that the heater isn´t submerged in water anymore!

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Coprite i bicchieri con una copertina per evitare che il calore vada via e per tenere i barattoli al buio.
Nota: il livello dell'acqua nel corso delle settimane diminuisce a causa dell'evaporazione per cui ti tanto in tanto va ricaricato.
Mai far scendere il livello dell'acqua ad un punto tale che le il riscaldatore sia all'asciutto!

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Providing the jars are kept warm you should see the first sign of germination after 3-5 days as bright white specks. This is mycelium. If anything grows that is not white, for instance green, black or pink, then the jars are contaminated and their content must be discarded and your clean procedures need some improvement. After the jars are emptied and the jar is washed with detergent and hot water it can be used again.

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Se i bicchieri sono alla giusta temperatura i primi segni di colonizzazione appaiono dopo 3-5 giorni sotto forma di macchioline bianche. Questo e' il micelio. Se dovesse crescere qualcosa non bianca, ma per esempio verde nera o rosa, ci troveremmo di fronte ad una contaminazione. In caso di contaminazione occorre gettare via con attenzione il contenuto del bicchiere, lavarelo con detergente e acqua molto calda e rivedere le precauzioni igieniche da adottare per non incorrere in ulteriori contaminazioni.

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Depending on the temperature and the viability of the spore syringe it takes 14-28 days for the mycelium to colonize the whole jar. Once colonized store the jars at normal room temperature, about 21°C (70°F) to initiate pinning.
Don't expose the jars to direct sunlight. Indirect sunlight (= the natural light that lights up a room because at day time out) or a low wattage lamp (cool white fluorescent lamp is ideal, incandescent lamp is less suitable) for 4-12 hours a day is sufficient.

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A seconda della temperatura di incubazione ci vogliono tra i 14 ed i 25 giorni perche' la tortina si colonizzi completamente. Quando e' completamente colonizzata riponete i bicchieri a temperatura ambiente, intorno ai 21°.
Non esponete il bicchiere al sole, basta la luce ambientale, o di una lampadina di pochi watt per poche ore al giorno.

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Within 5-10 days (with certain mushroom strains it can however take up to 30 days) pinhead-size accumulations of mycelium should form. These so called pins represent the beginning of mushroom growth. In the following days also small mushrooms with brown heads become visible. When this is the case it's time to birth the cake into the fruiting container where the mushrooms can develop to maturity.
Some strains don't easily develop pins. In this case put the colonized jar wrapped in a plastic bag in the fridge over night and then proceed to fruiting next day, even if the cake doesn´t show pins yet. This cold shocking usually helps trigger pinning somewhat.

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Nel giro di 5-10 giorni (ma con alcune specie anche fino a 30 giorni) si dovrebbero formare degli accumuli di micelio grossi come una punta di spillo. Questi si chiamano comunemente "pin" e rappresentano la parte iniziale della crescita del fungo. Nei giorni successivi dovrebbe essere possibile anche vedere piccoli funghi con tanto di cappello marrone: e' questo il momento di far nascere la tortina e metterla nel terrario dove i funghi potranno crescere fino alla maturita'.
Alcune specie non sviluppano facilmente i pin. In questo caso e' necessario mettere il bicchiere in una busta di plastica e poi nel frigorifero per una notte. La mattina seguente si depongono nel terrario. Questo si chiama cold shock ed a volte puo' aiutare il pinning.

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The fruiting of the cakes can be accomplished in any sort of container that can be loosely sealed and has at least one translucent side, preferably on the top. Suitable containers are a plastic bucket, rubbermaid container, terrarium, aquarium...
Put an 1/2 inch layer of moistened perlite or expanded clay pelets or even a wet paper towel at the bottom of the container and birth the cakes onto this layer by letting them slide from the jar upside down.

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La fruttificazione delle tortine puo' essere fatta in qualunque contenitore che si possa chiudere alla buona ed abbia almeno un lato un po' trasparente, preferibilmente il superiore. Secchi di plastica, scatole di plastica, terrari, acquari sono tutti contenitori idonei per lo scopo.
Bisogna mettere uno strato di poco piu' di un centimetro di perlite o di argilla espansa o anche un tovagliolo di carta bagnato in basso nel contenitore e metterci sopra le tortine facendole scivolare giu' dal bicchiere capovolto.

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Sometimes the cake doesn't slide out of the jar easily by itself.
You just need to turn the colonized jar upside down in your hand and slam the hand lightly against the palm of the other hand. This will make the cake slide against the lid and it can be birthed with ease.

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A volte la tortina non scivola giu' da sola senza fatica, se dovesse succedere capovolgete il bicchiere (tappato) su una mano e sbattetela forte sul palmo dell'altra: questo fara' scivolare la tortina sul tappo e fara' in modo che la si possa riporre facilmente nel terrario.

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If you have a bigger fruiting chamber (a bigger plastic container or a terrarium) you can of course put in more than one cake to fruit.
The distance between the cakes should be at least 2" (5cm) for the mushrooms have room to grow. Put a sheet of translucent plastic over the opening of the fruiting container. Take this sheet off once a day and fan the air out with a piece of cardboard. If the bottom layer begins to dry out, spray it with some water to keep it moist since this layer provides moisture for the air to stay very humid. Don´t spray the cakes directly.
Handle the cakes as little as possible but when you do it allways wash your hands thouroughly beforehand.
Over a course of the bext 7-14 days the cakes will begin to pin(if the haven't began to pin in the jars yet) and the small mushrooms will grow big in a matter of 2-5 days and as soon the caps begin to open they can be harvested.
This simultanious maturation of all mushrooms is called a flush.

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La distanza tra le tortine nel terrario deve essere di almeno 5cm. Mettete un pezzo di plastica trasparente sull'apertura del terrario. Togliete questo coperchio una volta al giorno e sventolateci dentro un po' d'aria fresca con un pezzo di cartone. Se lo strato inferiore del terrario comincia ad asciugarsi spruzza un po' d'acqua all'interno per mantenerlo umido. Questo strato e' quello che provvede a mantenere umido il terrario. Non spruzzate l'acqua direttamente sulle tortine!!!
Maneggiate le tortine meno che potete e quando lo fate lavatevi sempre bene le mani prima.
I funghettini diventano grandi in pochi giorni e vanno raccolti quando si comincia ad aprire il cappello.
La simultanea maturazione dei funghi e' chiamata flush, volata nel gergo dei coltivatori commerciali.

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After the mushrooms have grown big there are usually a few small, stunted mushrooms left over, they are called aborts. They can be recognized by their blackish heads and the fact that they stopped growing at some point. Still they are good to use unless they are rotten.

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Dopo che i funghi sono cresciuti rimangono solitamente dei piccoli funghi la cui crescita si e' fermata ad un certo punto, questi si chiamano aborti. Si possono riconoscere per il cappello tendente al nero e perche' non sono giunti a maturita'. Sono comunque buoni purche' non siano marci.

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It's crucial that you harvest all mushrooms, also the aborts, after the flush. This is most easily accomplished if you harvest the mushrooms off by gently twisting and tearing them off the cake with clean hands. Optionally you can dunk the cakes after each flush, this can increase the flush size significantly.

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E' di vitale importanza che dopo il flush vengano colti tutti i funghi, maturi ed abortiti. Si riesce piu' facilmente se si colgono ruotandoli e tirandoli leggermente via dalla tortina con le mani pulite.

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After approximately one week small mushrooms begin to form again and mature during the next days.
This cycle can repeat itself up to 4 times sometimes even more. After that the cake is exhausted it produces no more mushrooms and can be discarded. They can be also used to start outdoor beds.

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Dopo circa una settimana piccoli funghettini cominciano a formarsi ed a maturare nei giorni successivi.
Questo ciclo si puo' ripetere fino a 4 volte o anche di piu'. Quando la tortina si e' esaurita non produce piu' funghi.

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Sometimes green mold attacks the cakes even before they are completely exhausted. If this is the case remove and discard the contaminated cakes immediately to prevent the spreading of the contamination.

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A volte la muffa verde attacca la tortina anche prima che si sia esaurita. E' molto importante in questo caso buttarla via il piu' presto possibile per evitare di diffondere la contaminazione.

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4th and final flush:

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4° ed ultimo flush:

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(:title PF-Tek Senza Fatica:)

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(:table border=0 cellpadding=5 cellspacing=0 width=100% align=center:)
(:cell:)
Materiali
(:cell:)
Substrato
(:cell:)
Sterilization
(:cell:)
Inoculazione
(:cell:)
Incubazione
(:cell:)
Fruttificazione
(:tableend:)

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A proposito della pulizia...

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A proposito della pulizia...

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Online sources for vermiculite and perlite

USA
vermiculite @ ebay
perlite @ ebay
vermiculite @ Google
perlite @ Google
vermiculite @ Froogle
perlite @ Froogle

Canada
www.hydroponics.com

United Kingdom
www.gro-lite.co.uk

Australia
users.bigpond.net.au/nutriflo/

Vermiculite is generally available in garden and hydrophonic stores, in some regions also in pet shops.

Brown rice flour (BRF)

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Fornitori online di vermiculite e perlite

Farina di riso integrale (BRF)

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BRF is available in health food shops either already ground, sometimes though there is only whole brown rice available.
In this case you can grind the rice either in the shop or, if this option is not available, grind your own using an electrical coffee grinder.
BRF is best kept cool and dry for prolonged periods of time, since it can easily become rancid because of the fat content of its husk.
If you are unable to find BRF you can also use whole wheat- or rye flour with similar results. Ground millet or ground millet based birdseed also work good.
Google search for BRF
Froogle search for BRF

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Potete trovare BRF nei negozi di prodotti biologici gia' macinata, a volte pero' si trova solo il riso scuro integrale; se cosi' fosse potete vedere se si puo' macinare direttamente in negozio o potete usare un macinino da caffe'. Scordatevi di riuscirci con un frullino ad immersione.
La farina di riso va conservata in un luogo fresco ed asciutto dato che diventa rancida in un baleno a causa dei grassi e della buccia.
Se proprio non trovi il riso integrale puoi usare con risultati simili la farina integrale di grano o la farina di segale.

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Water

Water used for the substrate preparation should have drinking water quality. Tap water is usually ok, but if you're not sure about it, better use bottled drinking water or mineral water.

Spore syringe

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Acqua

L'acqua usata per la preparazione del substrato deve essere assolutamente potabile e priva di cloro, anche in minime tracce. Per essere sicuri meglio prendere una bottiglia d'acqua del discount, che costa poco e ti fa stare tranquillo.

Siringhe di spore

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A plastic syringe with needle attached containing 10cc -12cc suspension of mushroom spores in water.
The color of the suspension varies from completely translucent to slightly violet depending on the quantity of the spores in the solution.
Spores are microscopic so as long as you see at least a few specs in more or less clear water the syringe should have plenty of spores. Available through the internet, for instance

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E' una siringa di plastica con ago grande che contiene una sospensione di spore in acqua. Il colore della sospensione varia tra il completamente trasparente ed il violaceo, in relazione a quante spore ci sono dentro. Le spore sono microscopiche per cui per quanto non si veda altro che acqua e qualche macchiolina la siringa puo' essere zeppa di spore.
Su internet si possono trovare per esempio da:

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and many more.

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e molti altri.

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Jars

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Bicchieri

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The jars should have a content of around ½ pint (~240ml)
You can use either canning jars (Ball, Kerr...) or drinking glasses, the only requirement is that they are tapered and without shoulders, so you can slide the cake out of it in one piece once it's colonized. Bigger jars take much longer to colonize and are not recommended.
Shroomery FAQ: Where can I find supplies in the USA?
Shroomery FAQ: Where can I find supplies in the UK?

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I bicchieri devono essere da circa 240ml.
Potete usare sia i barattoli per le conserve che i bicchieri da acqua, l'unica necessita' da soddisfare e' che siano svasati e senza restringimenti all'apertura, cosi' che la tortina possa scivolare via senza fatica e tutta intera una volta colonizzata.
Perfetti sono i bicchieri della nutella o al massimo i frigoverre bormioli da 10cm di diametro.

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Substrate preparation

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Preparazione del substrato

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For one ½ pint jar(~240 ml) you will need:
=> 140 ml vermiculite
=> 40 ml brown rice flour
=> some vermiculite to fill the jar to the top (app. 20 ml)
=> water

Note:
½pt(pint) = 1 cup = 236ml(milliliter) = 236cc(cubic centimeter) = 1/4 qt(quart)
The cups, pints and quarts are in the US liquid measuring system.

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Per un bicchiere da 236ml servono:
=> 140 ml di vermiculite
=> 40 ml di farina integrale
=> un po' di vermiculite da mettere sopra al bicchiere tipo coperchio (circa 20 ml)
=> acqua

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Put the required amount of vermiculite for all the jars of one batch (for instance 6 jars: 6 x 140 ml = 840 ml ) in a bowl.

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Mettete la quantita' di vermiculite necessaria per tutti i bicchieri che intendiete preparare (per esempio 6 bicchieri: 6 x 140 ml = 840 ml) in una ciotola.

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Pour water slowly over the vermiculite while stirring with a spoon.
Be careful to only put that much water in as it can be absorbed by the vermiculite. Stir it well so all the vermiculite is uniformly soaked with water.

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Versate lentamente l'acqua nella vermiculite mescolando con un cucchiaio.
Attenti a mettere tanta acqua nella vermiculite quanta ne puo' assorbire.

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When you tilt the bowl you should see just a little water starting coming from the vermiculite.
This is when the correct water content is achieved.
If there is too much water in the bowl, pour the wet vermiculite in a strainer and let the excess water drain for a minute. Then the vermiculite will be at the field capacity, which is perfect.

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Per essere sicuri di aver messo la giusta quantita' inclinando la scodella si deve vedere solo un poco d'acqua che non viene assorbita e che scola dalla vermiculite.

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Now put the required amount of the BRF (for instance 6 x 40 ml = 240 ml) into the wet vermiculite at once and mix it in with the spoon. The goal is to uniformly coat the wet vermiculite particles with a layer of BRF.

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Ora mettete la giusta quantita' di farina di riso (per esempio 6 x 40 ml = 240 ml) nella vermiculite umida; versatela tutta insieme e mescolate col cucchiaio. L'obiettivo e' di avvolgere la vermiculite umida con un sottile strato di farina.

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Fill the mixture in jars ½ inch (1cm) under the top. it's very important to fill the substrate in the jars without tapping it down at all. It should stay very airy and loose to provide optimum conditions for the growth of mycelium.
Be careful not to leave any substrate on the upper edge of the jar. If you weren't careful enough and there are some substrate specks at the edge take a clean moist cloth and wipe the upper portion of the jar clean. Otherwise contaminants can start at those spots and work their way down into the jar.

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Riempite i bicchieri con la mistura fino ad 1cm dal bordo. E' molto importante che riempiendo i bicchieri con il substrato non lo si pressi. Deve rimanere molto arioso e non pressato perche' il micelio possa crescere nel migliore dei modi.
Attenzione a non lasciare parti di substrato sui bordi del barattolo: se non state attenti e lasciate delle macchioline sul bordo prendete un panno umido e pulitelo, altrimenti dei contaminanti potrebbero germinare e dall'alto diffondersi nel substrato.

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Fill up the jar with dry vermiculite to the top.
This layer hinders airborne contaminants reaching the underlying substrate in case they manage to come in during the inoculation and incubation.

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Finite di riempire i bicchieri con la vermiculite asciutta.
Questo strato impedisce ai contaminanti presenti nell'aria di diffondersi al di sotto, nel caso in cui cerchino di insinuarsi durante l'incubazione. Questa e' la piu' grande invenzione di PF!

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Take a 5inch(12cm) wide stripe of aluminium foil and fold it in the middle.
Put the foil over the opening of the jar as shown in the pictures. If you're using jars with metal lids, you can poke 4 holes at the very edge of each lid with a small nail and hammer and screw the lid on. The holes should be slightly bigger than the diameter of the syringe needle.

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Prendete un foglio di carta argentata di 12cm di larghezza e piegatelo a meta'.
Mettete il foglio d'alluminio sull'apertura cosi' come mostrato nella figura.
Se usate i barattoli con coperchio di metallo potete fare 4 fori sul bordo del coperchio con un chiodino ed un martello e poi avvitare il coperchio. I buchi devono essere un po' piu' larghi dell'ago della siringa.

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Fold the foil edges up and press them together so you get a nice aluminium foil lid.

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Modellate il foglio d'alluminio sul bordo del bicchiere per ottenere un coperchio di alluminio.

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Then take a piece of foil measuring 5in x 5in in and put it over the first two layers (respectively the metal lid if you're using lids) leaving the edges of the foil reaching down, since it has to be lifted again during the inoculation.
So now you have 3 layers of foil over the opening. The top layer is lifted during the inoculation.

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Prendete dunque un'altro pezzo di alluminio di 12cm x 12cm e mettetelo sopra il bel tappo d'alluminio che avevamo fatto. Questo strato deve ricoprire il barattolo fino alla base ed andra' sollevato per l'inoculazione.
Ora il barattolo ha 3 strati di alluminio sopra, ma solo l'ultimo andra' sollevato durante l'inoculazione.

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Pour approximately 1inch (2.5cm) of water into the pressure cooker, don't put in too much water otherwise it will come into the jars and alter their water content.
Then stack the jars into the pressure cooker. The use of a rack to keep the jars from directly touching the bottom of the cooker is strongly recommended.
Put the lid on and bring the cooker to the required pressure (15 psi = 1atm over atmospheric pressure) slowly over a period of 15 minutes on a medium flame.

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Versate circa 2.5cm di acqua nella pentola a pressione, non esagerate perche' se fosse troppa potrebbe entrare nei bicchieri ed alterare le proporzioni che abbiamo creato prima.
Ora mettete un pannone sul fondo della pentola. Se la pentola ha un suo doppiofondo rialzato e' sufficiente quello. Mettete i bicchieri nella pentola e chiudetela, portatela in pressione in non meno di una quindicina di minuti perche' un brusco aumento della temperatura potrebbe far rompere i bicchieri.
Quando il vapore comincia ad uscire dallo sfiatatoio aspettate un paio di minuti e poi abbassa il fuoco facendo in modo che comunque la pentola rimanga in pressione. Contate 45 minuti da questo momento se avete una canner, 1 ora sarebbe meglio se avete una lagostina.

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If you heat up the cooker too fast this can cause the jars to crack.
As soon as the steam begins to escape the rocker or the vent at the top of the pressure cooker turn the heat back so only a very small, steady steam flow persists from the vent. From this point on, pressure cook for 45 minutes.
Depending on the pressure cooker model the cooking procedure works a bit different so if you're not familiar with pressure cooking consult the instruction manual or someone who used pressure cookers before.
After 45 min take the cooker from the flame and let cool for at least 5 hours or even better over night.
If you are unable to find or buy a pressure cooker, you can also sterilize the jars using a big pot with a lid.
In this case steam the jars for 1.5 hours in a pot lid on. Use only approximately 1 inch of water at the bottom.
You might have to add some water to the pot during steaming due to evaporation.

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Se non avete mai messo mano su una pentola a pressione leggete le istruzioni, la pentola a pressione usata male puo' essere pericolosa.
Scaduto il tempo di sterilizzazione togliete la pentola dal fuoco e fatela raffreddare per almeno 5 ore o meglio ancora per tutta la notte.
Se non trovate una pentola a pressione o non ve la potete comprare potete sterilizzare i bicchieri in un pentolone con coperchio.
In questo caso cuocere i bicchieri per 1 ora e mezza tenendo sempre piu' o meno 3cm di acqua sul fondo, sempre per evitare che entrando nei bicchieri alteri le proporzioni.
Normalmente dovrete aggiungere di tanto in tanto dell'acqua nella pentola perche' 3cm non bastano per 1 ora e mezza di bollitura.

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After the cooker is cold to the touch take the jars out and place them on a clean surface, have an alcohol lamp or a lighter and the spore syringe ready. Shake the spore syringe to break up the spore clumps.

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Quando la pentola e' fredda al tatto tirate fuori i barattoli e metteteli su un piano pulito dovre avrete gia' preparato una lampada ad alcool, un fornelletto da campeggio o un accendino e la siringa con le spore. Agitate la siringa di spore in modo da disperdere eventuali agglomerati e diffondere uniformemente le spore.

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To be able to shake it it's necessary that there is a small bubble of air in the syringe. If this is not the case, then you can suck approximately 1cc of sterile air into the syringe by placing the tip of the needle into the flame and slowly pulling the plunger back.

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Per mescolare con successo il contenuto della siringa e' necessario che ci sia una bollicina d'aria al suo interno. Se non c'e' potete aspirare 1cc di aria sterile nella siringa mettendo la punta dell'ago sulla fiamma ed aspirando lentamente mentre l'ago e' rosso.

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Loosen the foil from all of the jars so it can be lifted easily when you inoculate.

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Allentate l'ultimo strato di alluminio da tutti i bicchieri cosi' che si possa rimuovere facilmente quendo sara' necessario.

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Take the cover from the needle and heat it over the flame until glowing red. Let cool for a few seconds

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Togliete il cappuccio dalla siringa e scaldate l'ago sulla fiamma fino a che non diventa rosso, poi fatelo raffreddare per qualche secondo.

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Take the upper foil layer off and put aside upside down.

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Togliete lo strato di alluminio allentato dal bicchiere e capovolgetelo di fianco.

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Pierce the foil at the edge of the jar with the needle app. 1in(2.5cm) deep and inject the spore suspension towards the inner jar surface. You should see a small drop running down the inner surface of the jar towards the bottom. Each jar is inoculated on 4 equally spaced points. You should use 1 - 1.5 ml of the spore suspension per jar so one 10ml syringe is sufficient for 6 -10 jars.

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Per inoculare fate un buco con l'ago a circa un dito dal bordo ed infilatelo di traverso in modo che una volta infilato tutto la punta sia in contatto col vetro. Iniettate la soluzione e dovreste vedere una gocciolina scendere dall'ago giu' per il substrato, fino al fondo. Impugnare la siringa tra il pollice ed il medio e spingere lo stantuffo con l'indice da' un maggior controllo sulla quantita' iniettata. Ogni bicchiere viene inoculato attraverso 4 punti equidistanti usando in tutto 1 - 1.5 ml di soluzione, per cui con una siringa si inoculano tra i 6 ed i 10 bicchieri.

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Put the foil on again. Flame sterilize the needle again after inoculating 3 jars to prevent cross contamination just in case a jar wasn't properly sterilized.
When all of the jars are inoculated fold the foil edges up and press them firmly together so you get a nice aluminium foil lid. Write the inoculation date and the species/strain information on the foil with an all surface felt tip pen. If you touch something other with the needle during the inoculation procedure except the foil surface of the bottom foil layer immediately flame sterilize the tip again.

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Rimettete l'alluminio sui bicchieri. Sterilizzate l'ago ogni 2 barattoli per evitare che possibili contaminazioni si diffondano tra i barattoli nel caso in cui qualcuno non sia stato sterilizzato a dovere.
Quando avete finito di inoculare ripiegate l'ultimo strato di alluminio per fare un bel coperchio, insieme agli altri 2 strati. Scrivete la data di inoculo e la specie sul coperchio con un pennarello a punta morbida. Se per caso durante il processo di inoculazione l'ago dovesse toccare qualche altra cosa oltre l'alluminio sterile sterilizzate l'ago immediatamente e continuate ad inoculare.

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PF-Tek for Simple Minds
for the cultivation of grain - loving mushrooms

to:

PF-Tek Senza Fatica
Per la coltivazione dei funghi su granaglie

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( updated: April 07, 2008, at 11:14 AM )
dead link reports, comments and suggestions welcome any time

to:

( aggiornamento: April 07, 2008, at 11:14 AM )
Commenti e suggerimenti sono i benvenuti sempre

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The PF-Tek was developed and first made public in 1992 by www.fanaticus.com (mirror).
This tek made the cultivation of mushrooms at home feasible for complete beginners utilizing commonly available materials.
The growing method I describe here is based on the PF-tek but includes a few modifications that are time tested, and are, in my opinion, superior to the original PF-tek.
I strongly recommend you to read the original PF-Tek, if you haven't done so already, to see a different approach to some steps.

The PF-Tek for Simple Minds uses ½ pint (~240ml) canning jars or drinking glasses and a growing substrate made of vermiculite, brown rice flour and water. The substrate is prepared, sterilized and inoculated with mushroom spores. After the substrate is fully colonized the fruiting takes place in a humid container.

On the subject of cleanliness

By growing mushrooms indoors on a nutritious substrate, you create conditions than not only favor the growth of the mushrooms, but also favor the growth of a large number of other organisms, many of them hazardous to the health. To ensure that only the desired mushroom is grown, it is very important to assure cleanliness in all of the cultivation related procedures.

Before you work, wash your hands with (antibacterial) soap and warm water. Afterwards, wipe them dry and rub with Lysol or isopropyl-alcohol(iso-propanol). Keep the rooms where you do the inoculation and fruiting dust free and clean and don't bring in dirty clothing or shoes. Equally important is personal hygiene. Dirty hands, and even dirty hair, are a hotbed for all kinds of unwanted microorganisms which can destroy your cultivation project.

to:

La PF-Tek e' stata pubblicata per la prima volta nel 1992 da www.fanaticus.com (mirror).
Questa tecnica ha aperto all'utente medio il mondo della coltivazione dei funghi, grazie all'uso di materiali reperibili in commercio facilmente.
Il metodo di coltivazione qui illustrato e' basato sulla PF-tek ma include alcune modifiche collaudate che la rendono, per me, superiore all'originale.
Raccomando a tutti di leggere la PF-Tek, se non lo avete gia' fatto, per vedere l'approccio differente in alcuni punti.

La procedura qui presentata usa i barattoli da ½ pinta (236ml) o bicchieri da acqua ed un substrato fatto di vermiculite, farina di riso ed acqua. Il substrato viene miscelato, sterilizzato ed inoculato con spore di funghi. Dopo che il substrato e' stato colonizzato completamente dal micelio la fruttificazione avviene in un contenitore di plastica.

A proposito della pulizia...

Siccome si coltivano funghi in un ambiente artificiale, su di un substrato artificiale che consente la crescita non solo dei funghi ma anche di un immenso numero di microorganismi, molti dei quali pericolosi per l'uomo, e' importante essere sicuri di coltivare solo il fungo selezionato per cui e' indispensabile assicurare la migliore pulizia durante tutto il processo di coltivazione.
Prima di iniziare a lavorare bisogna lavarsi le mani con un sapone antibatterico ed acqua calda e dopo averle asciugate si strofinano con disinfettante o alcool.

Tenete il luogo in cui si inocula e quello della fruttificazione pulito e senza polvere e non entratevi con vestiti o scarpe sporche. Ugualmente importante e' l'igiene personale: i capelli e le mani sporche per esempio sono un luogo di ritrovo ideale per tutti i microorganismi indesiderati che possono rovinare i progetti di coltivazione.

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Materials

Most materials are easily avaliable at the local shops.

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Materiali

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Vermiculite is made from a naturally occurring mineral - mica.
Crushed mica containing water is heated and expands to a volume several times greater than that of the untreated mica.
Vermiculite is able to hold several times its own weight in water and it gives the substrate an airy structure.
Vermiculite is available in several grades, the middle and the middle-fine grade are most suitable for cultivation purposes.

to:

La vermiculite e' fatta dalla mica, un materiale comunemente presente in natura.
La mica sbriciolata ed inumidita viene riscaldata e si espande di volume, fino a 30 volte piu' della mica non espansa.
La vermiculite puo' contenere molta acqua in rapporto al suo peso e dona al substrato una consistenza ariosa.
La vermiculite viene prodotta in varie misure: la piccola e la media sono adatte alla coltivazione.

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To be able to shake it it's necessary that there is a small bubble of air in the syringe. If this is not the case, then you can suck approximately 1cc of sterile air into the syringe by placing the tip of the needle into the flame and slowly pulling the plunger back.

to:

To be able to shake it it's necessary that there is a small bubble of air in the syringe. If this is not the case, then you can suck approximately 1cc of sterile air into the syringe by placing the tip of the needle into the flame and slowly pulling the plunger back.

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Cover the jars with a blanket to keep the heat escaping and to keep the jars dark. Note: the water level drops in some weeks by evaporation. Therefore you have to fill some fresh water in from time to time to keep the water level high enough. Never let evaporate so much water that the heater isn´t submerged in water anymore! You can get all of the above items at www.ebay.com for a very good price.

to:

Cover the jars with a blanket to keep the heat escaping and to keep the jars dark. Note: the water level drops in some weeks by evaporation. Therefore you have to fill some fresh water in from time to time to keep the water level high enough. Never let evaporate so much water that the heater isn´t submerged in water anymore!

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Put an 1/2 inch layer of moistened perlite or expanded clay pelets or even a wet paper towel at the bottom of the container and birth the cakes onto this layer by letting them slide from the jar upside down. Sometimes the cake doesn't slide out of the jar easily by itself.
You just need to turn the colonized jar upside down in your hand and slam the hand lightly against the palm of the other hand. This will make the cake slide against the lid and it can be birthed with ease.

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Put an 1/2 inch layer of moistened perlite or expanded clay pelets or even a wet paper towel at the bottom of the container and birth the cakes onto this layer by letting them slide from the jar upside down.

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Sometimes the cake doesn't slide out of the jar easily by itself.
You just need to turn the colonized jar upside down in your hand and slam the hand lightly against the palm of the other hand. This will make the cake slide against the lid and it can be birthed with ease.

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PF-Tek for Simple Minds
for the cultivation of grain - loving mushrooms
(Psilocybe cubensis)
( updated: April 07, 2008, at 11:14 AM )
dead link reports, comments and suggestions welcome any time

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====
The PF-Tek was developed and first made public in 1992 by www.fanaticus.com (mirror).
This tek made the cultivation of mushrooms at home feasible for complete beginners utilizing commonly available materials.
The growing method I describe here is based on the PF-tek but includes a few modifications that are time tested, and are, in my opinion, superior to the original PF-tek.
I strongly recommend you to read the original PF-Tek, if you haven't done so already, to see a different approach to some steps.

The PF-Tek for Simple Minds uses ½ pint (~240ml) canning jars or drinking glasses and a growing substrate made of vermiculite, brown rice flour and water. The substrate is prepared, sterilized and inoculated with mushroom spores. After the substrate is fully colonized the fruiting takes place in a humid container.

On the subject of cleanliness

By growing mushrooms indoors on a nutritious substrate, you create conditions than not only favor the growth of the mushrooms, but also favor the growth of a large number of other organisms, many of them hazardous to the health. To ensure that only the desired mushroom is grown, it is very important to assure cleanliness in all of the cultivation related procedures.

Before you work, wash your hands with (antibacterial) soap and warm water. Afterwards, wipe them dry and rub with Lysol or isopropyl-alcohol(iso-propanol). Keep the rooms where you do the inoculation and fruiting dust free and clean and don't bring in dirty clothing or shoes. Equally important is personal hygiene. Dirty hands, and even dirty hair, are a hotbed for all kinds of unwanted microorganisms which can destroy your cultivation project.

====

Materials

Most materials are easily avaliable at the local shops.

Vermiculite

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Vermiculite is made from a naturally occurring mineral - mica.
Crushed mica containing water is heated and expands to a volume several times greater than that of the untreated mica.
Vermiculite is able to hold several times its own weight in water and it gives the substrate an airy structure.
Vermiculite is available in several grades, the middle and the middle-fine grade are most suitable for cultivation purposes.

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Online sources for vermiculite and perlite

USA
vermiculite @ ebay
perlite @ ebay
vermiculite @ Google
perlite @ Google
vermiculite @ Froogle
perlite @ Froogle

Canada
www.hydroponics.com

United Kingdom
www.gro-lite.co.uk

Australia
users.bigpond.net.au/nutriflo/

Vermiculite is generally available in garden and hydrophonic stores, in some regions also in pet shops.

Brown rice flour (BRF)

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BRF is available in health food shops either already ground, sometimes though there is only whole brown rice available.
In this case you can grind the rice either in the shop or, if this option is not available, grind your own using an electrical coffee grinder.
BRF is best kept cool and dry for prolonged periods of time, since it can easily become rancid because of the fat content of its husk.
If you are unable to find BRF you can also use whole wheat- or rye flour with similar results. Ground millet or ground millet based birdseed also work good.
Google search for BRF
Froogle search for BRF

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Water

Water used for the substrate preparation should have drinking water quality. Tap water is usually ok, but if you're not sure about it, better use bottled drinking water or mineral water.

Spore syringe

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A plastic syringe with needle attached containing 10cc -12cc suspension of mushroom spores in water.
The color of the suspension varies from completely translucent to slightly violet depending on the quantity of the spores in the solution.
Spores are microscopic so as long as you see at least a few specs in more or less clear water the syringe should have plenty of spores. Available through the internet, for instance

www.sporeworks.com
www.thehawkseye.com
and many more.

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Jars

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The jars should have a content of around ½ pint (~240ml)
You can use either canning jars (Ball, Kerr...) or drinking glasses, the only requirement is that they are tapered and without shoulders, so you can slide the cake out of it in one piece once it's colonized. Bigger jars take much longer to colonize and are not recommended.
Shroomery FAQ: Where can I find supplies in the USA?
Shroomery FAQ: Where can I find supplies in the UK?
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Substrate preparation

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For one ½ pint jar(~240 ml) you will need:
=> 140 ml vermiculite
=> 40 ml brown rice flour
=> some vermiculite to fill the jar to the top (app. 20 ml)
=> water

Note:
½pt(pint) = 1 cup = 236ml(milliliter) = 236cc(cubic centimeter) = 1/4 qt(quart)
The cups, pints and quarts are in the US liquid measuring system.
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Put the required amount of vermiculite for all the jars of one batch (for instance 6 jars: 6 x 140 ml = 840 ml ) in a bowl.

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Pour water slowly over the vermiculite while stirring with a spoon.
Be careful to only put that much water in as it can be absorbed by the vermiculite. Stir it well so all the vermiculite is uniformly soaked with water.

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When you tilt the bowl you should see just a little water starting coming from the vermiculite.
This is when the correct water content is achieved.
If there is too much water in the bowl, pour the wet vermiculite in a strainer and let the excess water drain for a minute. Then the vermiculite will be at the field capacity, which is perfect.

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Now put the required amount of the BRF (for instance 6 x 40 ml = 240 ml) into the wet vermiculite at once and mix it in with the spoon. The goal is to uniformly coat the wet vermiculite particles with a layer of BRF.

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Fill the mixture in jars ½ inch (1cm) under the top. it's very important to fill the substrate in the jars without tapping it down at all. It should stay very airy and loose to provide optimum conditions for the growth of mycelium.
Be careful not to leave any substrate on the upper edge of the jar. If you weren't careful enough and there are some substrate specks at the edge take a clean moist cloth and wipe the upper portion of the jar clean. Otherwise contaminants can start at those spots and work their way down into the jar.

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Fill up the jar with dry vermiculite to the top.
This layer hinders airborne contaminants reaching the underlying substrate in case they manage to come in during the inoculation and incubation.

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Take a 5inch(12cm) wide stripe of aluminium foil and fold it in the middle.
Put the foil over the opening of the jar as shown in the pictures. If you're using jars with metal lids, you can poke 4 holes at the very edge of each lid with a small nail and hammer and screw the lid on. The holes should be slightly bigger than the diameter of the syringe needle.

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Fold the foil edges up and press them together so you get a nice aluminium foil lid.

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Then take a piece of foil measuring 5in x 5in in and put it over the first two layers (respectively the metal lid if you're using lids) leaving the edges of the foil reaching down, since it has to be lifted again during the inoculation.
So now you have 3 layers of foil over the opening. The top layer is lifted during the inoculation.

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Sterilization

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Pour approximately 1inch (2.5cm) of water into the pressure cooker, don't put in too much water otherwise it will come into the jars and alter their water content.
Then stack the jars into the pressure cooker. The use of a rack to keep the jars from directly touching the bottom of the cooker is strongly recommended.
Put the lid on and bring the cooker to the required pressure (15 psi = 1atm over atmospheric pressure) slowly over a period of 15 minutes on a medium flame.

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If you heat up the cooker too fast this can cause the jars to crack.
As soon as the steam begins to escape the rocker or the vent at the top of the pressure cooker turn the heat back so only a very small, steady steam flow persists from the vent. From this point on, pressure cook for 45 minutes.
Depending on the pressure cooker model the cooking procedure works a bit different so if you're not familiar with pressure cooking consult the instruction manual or someone who used pressure cookers before.
After 45 min take the cooker from the flame and let cool for at least 5 hours or even better over night.
If you are unable to find or buy a pressure cooker, you can also sterilize the jars using a big pot with a lid.
In this case steam the jars for 1.5 hours in a pot lid on. Use only approximately 1 inch of water at the bottom.
You might have to add some water to the pot during steaming due to evaporation.
If you never have used a pressure cooker before check out this document about the correct pressure cooker use.

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Inoculation

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After the cooker is cold to the touch take the jars out and place them on a clean surface, have an alcohol lamp or a lighter and the spore syringe ready. Shake the spore syringe to break up the spore clumps.
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To be able to shake it it's necessary that there is a small bubble of air in the syringe. If this is not the case, then you can suck approximately 1cc of sterile air into the syringe by placing the tip of the needle into the flame and slowly pulling the plunger back.
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Loosen the foil from all of the jars so it can be lifted easily when you inoculate.
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Take the cover from the needle and heat it over the flame until glowing red. Let cool for a few seconds

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Take the upper foil layer off and put aside upside down.

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Pierce the foil at the edge of the jar with the needle app. 1in(2.5cm) deep and inject the spore suspension towards the inner jar surface. You should see a small drop running down the inner surface of the jar towards the bottom. Each jar is inoculated on 4 equally spaced points. You should use 1 - 1.5 ml of the spore suspension per jar so one 10ml syringe is sufficient for 6 -10 jars.

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Put the foil on again. Flame sterilize the needle again after inoculating 3 jars to prevent cross contamination just in case a jar wasn't properly sterilized.
When all of the jars are inoculated fold the foil edges up and press them firmly together so you get a nice aluminium foil lid. Write the inoculation date and the species/strain information on the foil with an all surface felt tip pen. If you touch something other with the needle during the inoculation procedure except the foil surface of the bottom foil layer immediately flame sterilize the tip again.

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Incubation

The jars should be stored at 21-27°C (70-81°F), the warmer the better, but not exceeding 27°C. If you don't have these temperatures at home you can build an incubator to accommodate the jars.

Incubator

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The inoculated jars develop fastest if they are stored at a temperature of 27°C (80°F) (According to Stamets the best incubation temperature for P. cubensis would be 86°F, but since the jars themselves are a few degrees warmer than the surroundings (mycelium emits heat when growing) 80°F is a good and safe incubator temperature)

You can build an effective incubator by using two plastic boxes of the same size and an aquarium heater.
There are several types of aquarium heaters. When you´re buying a heater, make sure that it is of the "fully submersible" type.
Attach the heater to the bottom of the first box and pour in as much 27°C warm water that the heater is completely submerged.
Adjust the heaters thermostat so that the heater just shuts itself off at 27°C .
Put some spacers on the bottom of the box, they carry the second box and prevent it from touching the heater. In the above picture 4 jars are used. You could also use bricks, stones or something similar.

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Put the second box in the one containing water.
After a few hours measure the temperature again and adjust the heater if necessary so the water temperature is 27°C.
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When the box is empty, it will float on the water.
The water level in the lower box should reach app. 2/3 the height of the box, supposing the upper box is in place loaded with jars and resting on the spacers.

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Now you can put the inoculated jars into the box.

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Cover the jars with a blanket to keep the heat escaping and to keep the jars dark. Note: the water level drops in some weeks by evaporation. Therefore you have to fill some fresh water in from time to time to keep the water level high enough. Never let evaporate so much water that the heater isn´t submerged in water anymore! You can get all of the above items at www.ebay.com for a very good price.

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Providing the jars are kept warm you should see the first sign of germination after 3-5 days as bright white specks. This is mycelium. If anything grows that is not white, for instance green, black or pink, then the jars are contaminated and their content must be discarded and your clean procedures need some improvement. After the jars are emptied and the jar is washed with detergent and hot water it can be used again.
Check the Shroomery Contamination FAQ for more information on possible contaminations in mushroom culture.

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Depending on the temperature and the viability of the spore syringe it takes 14-28 days for the mycelium to colonize the whole jar. Once colonized store the jars at normal room temperature, about 21°C (70°F) to initiate pinning.
Don't expose the jars to direct sunlight. Indirect sunlight (= the natural light that lights up a room because at day time out) or a low wattage lamp (cool white fluorescent lamp is ideal, incandescent lamp is less suitable) for 4-12 hours a day is sufficient.

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Within 5-10 days (with certain mushroom strains it can however take up to 30 days) pinhead-size accumulations of mycelium should form. These so called pins represent the beginning of mushroom growth. In the following days also small mushrooms with brown heads become visible. When this is the case it's time to birth the cake into the fruiting container where the mushrooms can develop to maturity.
Some strains don't easily develop pins. In this case put the colonized jar wrapped in a plastic bag in the fridge over night and then proceed to fruiting next day, even if the cake doesn´t show pins yet. This cold shocking usually helps trigger pinning somewhat.

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Fruiting

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The fruiting of the cakes can be accomplished in any sort of container that can be loosely sealed and has at least one translucent side, preferably on the top. Suitable containers are a plastic bucket, rubbermaid container, terrarium, aquarium...
Put an 1/2 inch layer of moistened perlite or expanded clay pelets or even a wet paper towel at the bottom of the container and birth the cakes onto this layer by letting them slide from the jar upside down. Sometimes the cake doesn't slide out of the jar easily by itself.
You just need to turn the colonized jar upside down in your hand and slam the hand lightly against the palm of the other hand. This will make the cake slide against the lid and it can be birthed with ease.

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If you have a bigger fruiting chamber (a bigger plastic container or a terrarium) you can of course put in more than one cake to fruit.
The distance between the cakes should be at least 2" (5cm) for the mushrooms have room to grow. Put a sheet of translucent plastic over the opening of the fruiting container. Take this sheet off once a day and fan the air out with a piece of cardboard. If the bottom layer begins to dry out, spray it with some water to keep it moist since this layer provides moisture for the air to stay very humid. Don´t spray the cakes directly.
Handle the cakes as little as possible but when you do it allways wash your hands thouroughly beforehand.
Over a course of the bext 7-14 days the cakes will begin to pin(if the haven't began to pin in the jars yet) and the small mushrooms will grow big in a matter of 2-5 days and as soon the caps begin to open they can be harvested.
This simultanious maturation of all mushrooms is called a flush.

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After the mushrooms have grown big there are usually a few small, stunted mushrooms left over, they are called aborts. They can be recognized by their blackish heads and the fact that they stopped growing at some point. Still they are good to use unless they are rotten.
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It's crucial that you harvest all mushrooms, also the aborts, after the flush. This is most easily accomplished if you harvest the mushrooms off by gently twisting and tearing them off the cake with clean hands. Optionally you can dunk the cakes after each flush, this can increase the flush size significantly.

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After approximately one week small mushrooms begin to form again and mature during the next days.
This cycle can repeat itself up to 4 times sometimes even more. After that the cake is exhausted it produces no more mushrooms and can be discarded. They can be also used to start outdoor beds.

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Sometimes green mold attacks the cakes even before they are completely exhausted. If this is the case remove and discard the contaminated cakes immediately to prevent the spreading of the contamination.

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3rd flush:

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4th and final flush:

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Page last modified on April 07, 2008, at 11:14 AM