NOTICE - PF has been contacted by the owner of the copyright of this article and ordered to remove it from the PF web site because of the statute under TITLE II OF THE DIGITAL MILLENNIUM COPYRIGHT ACT OF 1998 (SECTION 512 (h). So I have edited it down to the important highlights.

JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES
American Academy of Forensic Sciences (1948)
Volume 45 - Number 3 - May 2000 - JFSCAS 45 (3)513-754 (2000)

DETECTING PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS IN THE DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES OF MUSHROOMS

The genus and species of Psilocybe mushrooms that were grown were identified as Psilocybe cyanescens. The pleurocystidia sizes noted in the keys describing the Psilocybe cyanescens mushroom varied slightly from the mushrooms grown. This may indicate a variant of this species (communication with Dr. David McLaughlin, Plant Biology Department, University of Minnesota) (2,4,5-8).

METHODS

The spores used in this experiment were obtained legally through an advertisement in High Times Magazine from Psylocybe Fanaticus (PFTek Seattle, WA). The spores were received in 10 mL syringes in an aqueous solution. The spore solutions were each viewed using a 1250X-magnification microscope.

The original spore solutions were analyzed by TLC and by GC/MS. No psilocyn or psilocybin were detected in any of the spore solutions.

Psilocybin was not detectable in the new mycelium or the spreading mycelium (analyzed by TCL and GC/MS).

Psilocybin was detectable by TLC and GC/MS methods in the mature mycelium when it begins to form "Hyphal knots" - pinheads and primordia. And of course the growing shrooms had detectable psilocybin also.

CONCLUSION

The psychoactive drugs psilocyn and psilocybin were not detected in the mycelium, the earliest stage of development of the mushroom. These drugs were identified in the mycelium knots, the earliest stages of the fruiting body of the mushroom.

The author (Susan Gross) wishes to acknowledge Dr. David McLaughlin, Plant Biology Department, University of Minnesota for his time and assistance in identifying the mushroom, and his explanations about the classifIcations of fungi and the development of the mushroom. This project was supported by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Minneapolis Office which generously provided the supplies.

REFERENCES

I. Minnesota Statues Chapter 152.02. Schedules of conlrolled substances; Subdivision 2, Schedule 1. The following ilems are listed in Schedule I:(3) Any material, compound, mixture or preparation which contains any quantity of the following hallucinogenic substances, their salts, isomers and salts of isomers, unless specifically excepted, whenever the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation: 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine; 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine; 2.5-dimethoxyamphetamine; 4-methoxyamphetamine; 5-methoxy-3, 4-methylenedioxyamphelamine; Bufotenine; Diethyltryptamine; Dimethyltryptamine: 3,4,5-trimethoxyamphetamine; 4-methyl-2.5-dimethoxyamphetamine; 4 Ibogaine; Lysergic acid diethylamide; Marijuana; Mescaline; N-ethyl-3-piperidyl benzilate; N-methyl-3-piperidyl benzilate; Psilocybin; Psilocyn; Tetrahydrocannabinols; 1-(1-(2-thienyl) cyclyohexyl) piperidine; N-ethyl-I-phenyl-cyclohexylamine; 1-(I-phenylcyclohexyl) pyrrolidine.

2. Kaul TN. Introduction to mushroom science. Enfield, New Hampshire: Science Publishers, Inc., 1997.

3. McKnight KH and McKnight VB. A field guide to mushrooms. Boston: Houghton Miffiin Company, 1987.

4. Rumack BH and Salzman E. Mushroom poisoning: diagnosis and treatment. West Palm Beach, Florida: CRC Press, Inc., 1978.

5. Ammirati JF, Traquair JA. and Horgen PA. Poisonous mushrooms of the Northern United Stales and Canada. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1985.

6. Guzman G. The genus Psilocybe. Nova Hedwigia: Beih, 1983;74:1-439.

7. Guzman G. Supplement to the monograph of the genus Psilocybe. In: Petrini O and Horak E, eds., Taxonomic monographs of Agaricales. Bibliotheca Mycologica 1995;159:91-141.

8. Singer R and Smith AH. Mycological investigations on teonanacatl, the Mexican hallucinogenic mushroom: Part II. A taxonomic monograph of Psilocybe, section Caerulescentes. Mycologia 1958;50:262-303.

9. Starnets P and Chilton JS. The mushroom cultivator. Olympia, Washington: Agarikon Press, 1983.

10. Psylocybe Fanaticus (PFtek), 1996.

PF comments

There are several interesting points In the first article, “Detecting Psychoactive Drugs in the Developmental Stages of Mushrooms”.

1. The article was the result of a full FBI investigation of PF in 1998. What saved PF was this; “The original spore solutions were analyzed by TLC and by GC/MS. No psilocyn or psilocybin were detected in any of the spore solutions.” If these drugs would have been detected, PF would certainly be history and the new spore syringe phenom would be over..

2. The article gave PF credit for the source of the spores, “The spores used in this experiment were obtained legally through an advertisement in High Times Magazine from Psylocybe Fanaticus (PFTek Seattle, WA)”. This is quite amazing because the FBI did not have to give any credit for this research, but they did. Most likely, it was because a lot of money was invested for the research and they achieved valid results. They even spelled Psylocybe Fanaticus correctly incorrect with a Y, and not an I. Also, the FBI performed the PF TEK exactly as written (credit given in the references section and footnotes) and because they followed the PF TEK, even they were able to get a first time success, making their research project and money spent, successful.

3. The paper identified the shroom grown (PF race) as a Psilocybe Cyanescens. Everyone knows that the PF race is Psilocybe Cubensis and not Psilocybe Cyanescens. Why then identify it as a wrong specie? The clue is here, “The genus and species of Psilocybe mushrooms that were grown were identified as Psilocybe cyanescens. The pleurocystidia sizes noted in the keys describing the Psilocybe cyanescens mushroom varied slightly from the mushrooms grown. This may indicate a variant of this species (communication with Dr. David McLaughlin, Plant Biology Department, University of Minnesota) (2,4,5-8).” For the last few years, PF has taught the concept of “spore race”. What the scientists did was to ignore what PF said about the identity of the shroom and went to the books and keys to do an objective ID, and what they obviously saw was that the PF race shroom looks more like a Psilocybe Cyanescens than a Psilocybe Cubensis. They refer to it as a “variant of the species”. This is more vindication of PF’s new concept of spore race as opposed to the common designation - “strain”, which falls short of describing these various races that do not mate, but stay unique and separate.

4. They found no drugs in the young mycelium. This is very surpising, because after ingestion of “tea” made from boiling down mycelium engulfed grain, a slight “psilocybian buzz” can be felt for a brief time. The answer is that the lab equipment could not detect an amount of psilocybin that the human psyche can!


Chapter two

Potency comparisons of 4 species of "Dutch over the counter" Magic Mushrooms excerpt from THE FORENSIC SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL journal. 113 (2000) 389-395

HALLUCINOGENIC MUSHROOMS ON THE GERMAN MARKET - SIMPLE INSTRUCTIONS FOR EXAMINATION AND IDENTIFICATION

"The cultivation or possession of whole Psilocybe mushrooms and its spores are restricted by German law since 1998"

Psilocybin and psilocin measurements (%) for 18 specimens of Psilocybe Cubensis, 9 specimens of Ps. Semilanceata, 6 specimens of Paneaolous cyanescens and 4 specimens of Ps.Tampanensis.

Psilocybe Cubensis     Psilocybe Semilanceata  

psilocybin  psilocin   psilocybin  psilocin    
none       .14         .01         .48         
none       .05         .16         .13         
none       .10         .25         .08         
none       .10         .27         .24         
none       .11         .30         .03         
.01        .05         .42         .04         
.02        .09         .51         .12
.17        .09         .72         .01
.31        .23         .91         .90
.50        .12
.87        .04
.98        .03
1.07       .01

Panaeolous Cyanescens  Psilocybe Tampanensis

Psilocybin Psilocin    Psilocybin  Psilocin
.02        .56         none        .02
.44        .14         .01         .03
.47        .22         .03         .03
.51        .64         .19         .01
.54        .09
1.15       .90

PF comments

Extreme variations in potency of a given collection of magic shrooms has been reported ever scince reports have been done about these shrooms. And similarly, this report also shows the extreme variability of psilocybin content amongst the dried samples. So if one wants potent and satisfying Cubensis magic shrooms, they should be grown for potency. And that is done by harvesting them in their young stage, before sporulation begins. When that is done, even the most different appearing spore races look about the same. When the caps aren’t fully expanded, all of the races look similar. The visual differences emerge when the shrooms mature, but then when they mature, they are only good for spore printing. These are weak in potency and unsatisfying for tripping. So the word of wisdom is, grow them PF style, harvest them when they are young and cool dry them with desiccant. When this is done, they are an entheogen of the highest nature.



Grow Mushrooms from Spores
PF-Tek for Simple Minds PF-Tek voor de gewone man | La PF-Tek pour les nuls PF-Tek für einfache Gemüter | PF-Tek απλ?ς λογικ?ς | PF-Tek Senza Fatica | PF-Tek iesacejiem | PF-Tek Paprastoms Mintims | PF-Tek for Lavpanner | PF-Tek pentru oameni simpli | PF-Tek na jednostavan nacin | PF-Tek za telebane | PF-Tek para Mentes Simples | PF-Tek för latmaskar |
Laminar Flow Hood - Build a HEPA filter flowhood | Hotte de ventilation laminaire - Construire une hotte avec un filtre HEPA |
Psilocybe azurescens outdoor cultivation | Culture extérieure du Psilocybe azurescens | Psilocybe azurescens buitenkweek |
Grain for Simple Minds | Graan voor de gewone man | Método para torpes de preparación de grano | Granaglie Senza Fatica | Le Grain pour les nuls | Grudai? |
Importance of Gas Exchange | Het belang van gaswisseling | Oro kaitos svarbumas | L’Importance des Échanges de Gaz |
Polyfil filter lid for Simple Minds | Polyfil filterdeksels voor de gewone man | Polyfill for Simple Minds italiano | Método para torpes de elaboración de filtros de fibra de poliéster | Dangtelis su filtru | Couvercle avec filtre Polyfill pour les nuls |
Pouring Agar for Simple Minds | Agar uitgieten voor de gewone man | Versare l'Agar Senza Fatica (...e senza condensa) | Método para torpes de llenado de placas petri con agar | Couler l’Agar pour les nuls |
Cloning for Simple Minds | Klonen voor de gewone man | Método para torpes de clonación de setas | Le clonage pour les nuls | Clonagem para Mentes Simples | Klonavimas |
Pressure cooker test | Snelkookpan test | Test della pentola a pressione | Test para comprobar el correcto funcionamiento de ollas a presión | Teste para a Panela de Pressão | Test de cuiseur sous pression |
Pressure Cooker Use |
Homemade Tyvek filter discs test |
Mycelium Inoculation Technique | Technique d'Inoculation de Mycélium |
Casing PF-Cakes | Het Bedekken van PF-Cakes | PF-Tek pyrageliu aptaisymas | Casing pour gâteaux PF-Tek | Casing pentru prajituri PF